How to Improve Your English Pronunciation

Pronunciation plays an important role in your life. Do you often hear people saying “Can you say that again?”

In what manner and periods do you overhear this when you’re communicating? Also if your terminology and English linguistic rules are flawless, it can still be problematic for individuals to comprehend you sinceyour pronunciation is not clear.

Articulating English words correctly can be one of the toughest parts of learning English.

The English semantic has some sounds that your inborn language might nothave.

So we have few guidelines for you, to help you pronounce superior.

Absorb to listen.

Beforehand you acquire how to communicate; you’ll want to learn how to listen. Certain sounds can be tough to tell apart when you’re paying attention. You need to be an active and attentive listener to speak well.

The stronger you get at earshot words, the better you will become at phonating them.

2. Observe  how your mouth and lips move.

While speaking, you move your mouth. How you move your mouth will certify how you pronounce a word.

The first step to correcting your mouth shape is to notice it and pay attention. Few ways you can notice that your mouth and lips are producing the correct shape:

Use a mirror. This is the best way to tell what your mouth is doing while you chat.

Put a finger in front of your lips (like you’re saying “shh”).

While you state, don’t move your finger. You should feel your lips touching away from or forceful against your finger.

Lookout at others mouth when they are speaking, notice the shape their mouth and lips make when they talk.

3. Pay heed to your tongue.

The foremost dissimilarity between rice and lice is in your tongue.

Subsequently when you speak, you move your tongue to make sounds. You probably didn’t even notice that, since you do it deprived of discerning. To improve your English pronunciation, it’s a good idea to check what your tongue is doing.

4. Apply  stress to sounds and words.

English is a hassled linguistic. That means some words and sounds are more important than others. You can hear this when you say a word out loud.

For example, the word “present” is pronounced with a stress at the end, so it sounds like this: “Pre-Sent.”

Sometimes where you put the stress in a word can change the word’s meaning. Say this word out loud: “present.” If you said “PREsent,” you are talking about a noun that means either “right this moment” or “a gift.” If you said “preSENT,” you are talking about a verb that means “to give or show.”

Here’s one moresample: the noun “ADDress” is the place where you live, and the verb “addRESS” is to speak to someone.

With enough practice, you can get what sounds right too.

5. Record yourself.

Another way to speak is that you record yourself with a camera. Use a camera and not just a sound recorder because it’s important to see how you speak, not only hear it.

Expressions while speaking play an important role.

Ground Effect

For PPL, CPL & ATPL aspirants who want to become a good pilot, must be well conversant with the effects while aircraft is flying near to ground. Such instances are encountered while close to ground during take-off and landing..  At Gracious Avatar during commercial pilot training classes for PPL, CPL & ATPL aspirants, such instances / effects will be covered by the expert ground instructors.  These are the important topics which would be covered during CPL & APTL pilot training at Gracious Avatar, Gurgaon (India).

Ground Effect is the name given to positive influence on the lifting characteristics of horizontal surfaces of an aircraft wing when it is close to the ground. This effect is a consequence of the distortion of the airflow below such surfaces attributable to the proximity of the ground. It applies to both fixed and rotary wing aircraft.

The increase in Lift created by Ground Effect comes primarily from a reduction in the amount of induced drag generated which improves the lift/drag ratio. In most circumstances, this increased lift is supplemented by a direct increase in the lift generated by the wing.

How Do I Become a Pilot

For a PPL, CPL & ATPL aspirants who wants to become a good pilot, during flying prior to departure or enroute, earth atmosphere plays a vital role for safety of the aircraft.  To ensure this, pilot has to be well versant with earth atmosphere & other topics related to aviation meteorology.  At Gracious Avatar during commercial pilot training classes for PPL, CPL & ATPL aspirants, meteorology will be covered by the expert ground instructors.   Humidity is one of the important topics which would be covered during CPL pilot training.

HUMIDITY

  1. Water vapor is always present in the air to a greater or lesser extent, in the troposphere.
  • Water evaporates into the air from oceans, lakes, vegetation etc. It ascends and forms clouds which cause precipitation.
  • Water exists in three phases: the gas (water vapor), liquid (rain, drizzle, shower) and solid(snow, hail).
  • The capacity of air to hold water vapor depends largely on temperature and to some extent on pressure. Higher the temperature, higher is the capacity of air to hold water vapor.
  • Dry Air: Air that contains no water vapor. Exists in upper troposphere or stratosphere.
  • Moist Air: The normal air that we breathe. It is also called unsaturated air.
  • Saturated Air: When air holds maximum water vapor, it is called saturated air.
  • Vapor Pressure: The partial pressure exerted by water vapor in the air. If p is the total pressure of air and e is the vapor pressure, then p-e is the pressure of dry air.
  • Saturated Vapor Pressure: It is the pressure exerted by water vapor when air is saturated.
  1. Absolute Humidity: It is the actual amount of water vapor contained in a given volume of air at a given temperature. It is expressed as g/m3.
  1. Humidity Mixing Ratio: It is defined as the mass of water vapor contained in a given mass of air. It is expressed as g/kg.
  1. Humidity Mixing Ratio for Saturated Air: It is defined as the maximum mass of water vapor that can be contained in a given mass of air at a particular temp and pressure. It is expressed as g/kg.
  1. Relative Humidity: It is defined as the ratio, in percentage, of the actual water vapor present in the air to the maximum it can hold at the same temperature and pressure.
  1. RH= HMRx100/HMR for saturated air.
  1. RH=Vapor pressure of Airx100/Saturation vapour pressure of Air.
  1. Wet Bulb Temperature (Tw Tw): It is the lowest temperature which air would attain by evaporating water into it to saturate it. Desert Coolers work on this principle.
  1. Dew Point Temperature (Td Td): It is the lowest temperature to which air should be cooled at constant pressure to saturate it with respect to water. Cooling below dew point causes condensation.
  1. Frost Point: It is the temperature to which air must be cooled to reach saturation with respect to ice. Cooling below the frost point causes formation of hoar frost.

Important Points

  1. As the temperature of the air increases, the amount of water vapour required to saturate it also increases.
  • At subzero temperatures water molecules have more energy and greater degree of freedom than ice, consequently the saturation vapour pressure over water drops is more than that over ice particles.
  • If water drops and ice particles co-exist, water drops will evaporate and condense on the ice particles. This explains rainfall from clouds which extend above 0oC and have both super cooled water drops and ice crystals co-existing.
  • Small water drops can exist in super cooled state up to -40o C.
  • For saturated Air( in Fog, Rain ) Air Temp(TT)=TwTw=TdTd
  • For unsaturated air: Dry Bulb Temp>Wet Bulb Temp>Dew Point

For more info :- https://www.graciousavatar.in/Pilot-Training/

Aptl Integrated Course

For a PPL, CPL & ATPL aspirants who wants to become a good pilot, during flying prior to departure or enroute, earth atmosphere plays a vital role for safety of the aircraft.  To ensure this, pilot has to be well versant with earth atmosphere & other topics related to aviation meteorology.  At Gracious Avatar during commercial pilot training classes for PPL, CPL & ATPL aspirants, meteorology will be covered by the expert ground instructors.   Pressure is one of the important topic which has to be covered during commercial pilot training.

PRESSURE

 

Static & Dynamic Pressure

1.      When the air is at rest its molecules are in random motion all over. The pressure exerted by these molecules is uniform in all directions. This Pressure is called Static Pressure or Barometric Pressure.
2.      If the air is in motion an additional pressure is exerted in the direction opposite to the flow. This is called Dynamic Pressure or Wind Pressure. Wind pressure is used in the design of air speed indicator.

Pressure as Weight of the Air Column

1.      The atmospheric Pressure at any level is the weight of the column of air of unit cross-section extending vertically upwards to the top of atmosphere.
2.         As the weight decreases with height, the pressure also decreases with height.
3.         ICAO has adopted hector Pascal (hPa) as the unit of atmospheric pressure. The other units are mm, and inches.

 

 

  Relationship between Pressure & Altitude

1.      Roughly 1 hPa change in Pressure is equivalent to :

at MSL 27 ft
at 20000 ft 30 ft
at 30000 ft 50 ft
at 40000 ft 100 ft

2.      The pressure decreases with height from sea level to 600m at 4%, up to 1.5 km at 3% and up to 3.0 km at 2.5%. At 6 km it reduces to half the value at sea level and is negligible at 100 km.

Variation of Pressure in Warm & Cold Air

1.    Warm Air is less dense than the Cold Air.
2.    Pressure falls at a faster rate over a cold column of air than a warm column of air.
3.    Where upper Air Mean Temperatures are higher upper Air Mean Pressures are higher and where mean Temps are lower mean pressures are lower.

Diurnal Variation of Pressure

1.    Atmospheric Pressure follows a wavy pattern during 24 hours, showing maxima at 1000h & 2200h and minima at 0400h & 1600h local time. Such variations are very small at poles and large at equator.
2.    When the temperature is highest in the afternoon, the density of air close to the ground is low. Hence the pressure is lowest. At about sunrise when the temperature is lowest, the pressure is highest. There is a phase difference of about 3 hours between the temperature and the pressure.
3.    Diurnal variation of pressure is probably a natural oscillation of the atmosphere, having a period of almost 12 hours.
4.    As the air is continuous, if there is a high pressure at one place there has to be a low pressure on the opposite side of the globe. With the rotation of the earth the pressures also rotates. Hence, two maxima and two minima in 24 hours.

 

 

Pressure Systems

1.    Low (Cyclone): It is an area enclosed by an isobar with lowest pressure at the centre. When there are two or more closed isobars at an interval of 2 hPa, it is called a Depression. Winds around a low blow in anticlockwise direction in N hemisphere converging towards the centre. There is convergence and upward motion at a low. Hence it is associated with bad weather.
2.    Trough of Low: A tongue like extension of isobars from a low is called trough of low. Pressure along the trough is lower than on either side. Isobars along the trough are V- shaped and wind direction abruptly changes and backs.
3.    High: It is a region enclosed by isobars with highest pressure at the centre. Wind in a high moves in a clockwise direction. It is associated with fair weather but visibility is poor due to subsidence.
4.    Ridge: It is a wedge like extension of isobars from a high pressure area. Pressure is higher along the ridge than on either side.

 

Height Vs Pressure

Sea Level 1013 hPa
10000 ft 700 hPa
18000 ft 500 hPa
24000 ft 400 hPa
30000 ft 300 hPa
34000 ft 250 hPa
38000 ft 200 hPa
44000 ft 150 hPa
53000 ft 100 hPa

QFE: Pressure measured at the airfield setting point.
QNH: Pressure reduced to mean sea level using ISA specifications.
QNE: 1013 set on altimeter sub scale, will, on landing give an altitude known as the QNE value.
QFF: Pressure reduced to mean sea level using standard met practices (temperature at the station, which is isothermal lapse rate).
For more info :- https://www.graciousavatar.in/Pilot-Training/ATPL.php

EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE FOR Airline

For a PPL, CPL & ATPL aspirants who wants to become a good pilot, during flying prior to departure or enroute, earth atmosphere plays a vital role for safety of the aircraft.  To ensure this, pilot has to be well versant with earth atmosphere & other topics related to aviation meteorology.  At Gracious Avatar during ground classes for PPL, CPL & ATPL aspirants, meteorology will be covered by the expert ground instructors.   
EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE
Atmosphere
The atmosphere of the earth is an envelope of air around earth and it is bound to the earth due to the gravitational pull of the earth. Effectively, it is part of earth and moves with the earth as the earth rotates on its axis. Air is a mixture of gases, and this mixture is quite homogeneous upto about 80km due to turbulent flow, whilst above 80 km the atmosphere is heterogeneous.
Composition & Characteristics
1.         Since atmosphere is made up of air and air has weight, so the atmosphere has weight and it exerts pressure. Atmosphere has no definite shape. It occupies space. Air is a mixture of gases- the most prominent being Nitrogen and Oxygen. The ratio of gases present in the air is :- Nitrogen 78.08%, Oxygen 20.95%, CO2 0.035%, Argon (A2) 0.03% and traces of Helium, Methane, Hydrogen, Nitrous Oxide, Ozone, Xenon etc.
2.         Nitrogen And Oxygen making up most of the atmosphere can be said to have a ratio which is :- Nitrogen: Oxygen= 3:1 (By Weight) Nitrogen: Oxygen= 4:1 (By Volume)
3.         Even though atmosphere is quite homogeneous, it shows remarkable variable quantities of water vapour in the lower troposphere and of ozone in the lower stratosphere (20-25km). 4.         Water vapour, Carbon dioxide and Ozone, though present in small quantities have significant effect on weather and life. These gases are called Green House Gases. Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs harmful ultra-violet radiation from the sun and protects us. 5.         Air which has no water vapour is called dry air. A mixture of Dry air and water vapour is called Moist Air. The air which has >4% water vapour (=100% RH) is called saturated. Similarly, the air which has <4% water vapour (RH<100%) is called unsaturated. In meteorology, all air that is unsaturated is called Dry Air.

Vertical Distribution of Air

Due to the gravitational attraction of the earth, most of the atmospheric mass is concentrated in the lower portion and the density decreases rapidly with height. As a rough estimate :-         ·         1/2 of the atmospheric mass is contained in the lower 6 km ·         3/4 of the atmospheric mass is contained in the lower 10 km ·         99% of the atmospheric mass is contained in the lower 35 km

Thermal Structure of the Atmosphere

1.    Sun is the main source of energy for the earth. It gets heated up by the sun’s rays during day and then heats the layers above by conduction, convection, radiation and latent heat.
2.    Sensible Heat (Conduction, Convection & Radiation) – 23%.
3.    Latent Heat (Evaporation, Condensation & Sublimation) 77%.
4.    Due to absorption of solar radiation the atmospheric layers close to ground are warmer than layers above.
5.    The temperature falls with height. This trend however does not continue till the end of atmosphere.
6.    Based on temperature distribution the atmosphere is divided into layers viz. troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere & Thermosphere (which includes ionosphere).
7.    The top of the troposphere where the temperature stops falling is called tropopause. It is a boundary layer between troposphere & stratosphere.
8.    Higher the temperature at surface higher will be tropopause.
9.    Above (not at) 8km there is a reversal of temperature & density and above this height poles are warmer than equator.

Troposphere

1.    Lowest layer of atmosphere is troposphere. 2.    Extends to 16-18 km over equator and 8-10 km over poles. 3.    Temperature falls with height at a uniform rate of 6° C/km. 4.    In day to day conditions temp may fall (lapse), rise (inversion) or stay constant (isothermal).Troposphere is generally unstable and thus most weather occurs in this layer. 5.    70% of the atmosphere lies within this layer. 6.    Tropopause is top of troposphere and a boundary between troposphere and stratosphere. 7.    At tropopause the temperature stops falling with height. Lapse rate, if any, reduces to just 1-2°/km. 8.    Height of tropopause is 16-18 km over equator and 8-10 km over poles. 9.    There are breaks in Tropopause where jet stream occurs.
10. Polar tropopause- Pole ward of 45-600 N 300 hPa. 11. Tropical tropopause- Equator to 350 N 100 hPa. 12. Jet Stream at 200 hPa between the two tropopause.


Stratosphere

1.    The layer above troposphere which is much stable and in which temperature rises with height is stratosphere. 2.    Nacreous clouds or mother of pearl clouds are seen in upper stratosphere in higher latitudes. 3.    The temperature in lower stratosphere slowly decreases with height in high latitudes in winters, remains nearly constant in the mid-latitudes and increases with height in lower latitudes. 4.    In the upper stratosphere (above 30 km) there is general increase of temperature with height due to absorption of UV rays by Ozone and Oxygen.
5.    The top of stratosphere where once again the temperature has stopped rising and has reached about 0° C is called Stratopause. It occurs at a height of 50 km.

Mesosphere

1.    Mesosphere extends from Stratopause to about 80 km. Lack of absorption of solar radiation and weak vertical mixing causes temperatures to fall with height in this layer.
2.    On rare occasions Noctilucent clouds are seen in upper Mesosphere.
3.    The level at the top of Mesosphere where temperatures after reaching about -90° C stop falling is called Mesopause. It generally occurs at about 80 km.

Thermosphere

1.    The region extends from Mesopause to the outermost fringes of the atmosphere in which temperature increases with height up to 200 km.
2.    In this layer air is very thin and very few molecules are present. However, there are ionized particles that move rapidly and strike each other thus increasing temperature.
3.    The temperatures are about 600° C at 200 km which increases to 2000° C during sunspot maxima.


International Standard Atmosphere
ISA has been defined by ICAO. Its specifications are:-
1.    Air is Dry.
2.    Temp at MSL 15°C.
3.    Pressure at MSL 1013.25 hPa.
4.    Acceleration due to gravity 980.665 cm/sec2.
5.    Lapse rate up to 11km 6.5° C/km.
6.    Temp assumed constant at -56.5° C from 11km to 20 km.
7.    From 20 to 30 km there is a rise of temp at the rate of 1° C/km with a temp of -44.5° C at 32 km.

 For more info :- https://www.graciousavatar.in/Pilot-Training/ATPL.php

Aircraft Instruments

One of the most intimidating parts of learning to fly for student
pilots is the Flight Instruments Panel.

In order to learn to pilot an aircraft safely, the student pilot
must learn, in depth, the functionality of each and every gauge,
button and switch on the flight instruments panel for his aircraft.
From the altimeter to the OAT gauge, every instrument is
important in piloting your aircraft safely and accurately.

Understanding how each flight instrument works, and what to
do in the event of a malfunction will further your ability to fly
with confidence. Its not only important to understand that your
airspeed indicator only shows your true airspeed, not your
ground speed, but you should also know that an airspeed
indicator also uses both the pilot tube, as well as the static
system.

To say, you must be aware what an instrument does as well as
how it does.

With advancement in aviation, flying is done in reference to
instruments itself.

For more info :- https://graciousavatar.in/Pilot-Training/

CPL is the Commercial Pilots License.

ATPL is the Airline Transport Pilots License.

Both these license provide the holder with the privilege of flying an airplane for remuneration.

The difference is the experience required to obtain one, for a CPL the minimum stipulated time is between 200-250 hours of flying in a aircraft, this is a standard that is practiced across countries with few exceptions (some Gulf countries issue the license at 125-150 hours), you also need to pass written and flying skill tests to obtain either of the licenses.

For the ATPL, the globally accepted minimum time is 1500 hours.

Associated with the experience people are required to demonstrate equal knowledge in CRM (cockpit resource management), piloting skills, knowledge of piloting an aircraft, also a majority of the airlines promote only pilots with an ATPL to the Captains position. Pilots without ATPL usually continue only as FOs of senior FO’s.

ATPL is required as a basic license for serving as a Pilot-in-Command(PIC) or Captain of an aircraft exceeding 5700 Kg or 12.5k lbs in weight or in general PIC of for a scheduled air carrier who ’ve aircrafts with more than 9 seats. Or else one can continue to be an FO inside an airline but can’t be captain.

For More Info:-https://graciousavatar.in/Pilot-Training/

How does an Aircraft Fly?

At Gracious Avatar CPL, PPL & ATPL aspirants coming for pilot training, in order to achieve well results in DGCA exams and clearing an interview, you must have basic knowledge of an aircraft.  Like the first question comes in everyone mind that how does an aircraft fly? So here, I will highlight the basic principle and laws behind it.

It is a combination of aerodynamics (how air moves around an object) and propulsion (thrust- forward motion). So how it works????Aerodynamics- It works on a Bernoulli’s principle which states that faster an air travels, lower the pressure it exerts. Aircraft achieve lift because of the design of the wing and cross section of a wing is known as “Aerofoil”. The speed of the air on the upper surface of the wing is greater than the lower surface, which exerts lesser pressure on the upper surface and higher pressure on the lower surface of the wing. As there is a pressure difference on the wing, generates the lift. The vertical movement of an airplane is due to the force of lift.In addition, the forward direction of pulling force is generated by an aircraft engine.

There are basically four forces acting on the aircraft: Lift, Thrust, Drag, and Weight.

Lift and thrust are overcoming two other aerodynamic forces which are known as drag and gravity. In order to produce lift, aircraft uses its wings and to generate thrust it relies on Jet engines/propeller engines.

 For More Info:- https://graciousavatar.in/Pilot-Training/

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