How Do I Become a Pilot

For a PPL, CPL & ATPL aspirants who wants to become a good pilot, during flying prior to departure or enroute, earth atmosphere plays a vital role for safety of the aircraft.  To ensure this, pilot has to be well versant with earth atmosphere & other topics related to aviation meteorology.  At Gracious Avatar during commercial pilot training classes for PPL, CPL & ATPL aspirants, meteorology will be covered by the expert ground instructors.   Humidity is one of the important topics which would be covered during CPL pilot training.

HUMIDITY

  1. Water vapor is always present in the air to a greater or lesser extent, in the troposphere.
  • Water evaporates into the air from oceans, lakes, vegetation etc. It ascends and forms clouds which cause precipitation.
  • Water exists in three phases: the gas (water vapor), liquid (rain, drizzle, shower) and solid(snow, hail).
  • The capacity of air to hold water vapor depends largely on temperature and to some extent on pressure. Higher the temperature, higher is the capacity of air to hold water vapor.
  • Dry Air: Air that contains no water vapor. Exists in upper troposphere or stratosphere.
  • Moist Air: The normal air that we breathe. It is also called unsaturated air.
  • Saturated Air: When air holds maximum water vapor, it is called saturated air.
  • Vapor Pressure: The partial pressure exerted by water vapor in the air. If p is the total pressure of air and e is the vapor pressure, then p-e is the pressure of dry air.
  • Saturated Vapor Pressure: It is the pressure exerted by water vapor when air is saturated.
  1. Absolute Humidity: It is the actual amount of water vapor contained in a given volume of air at a given temperature. It is expressed as g/m3.
  1. Humidity Mixing Ratio: It is defined as the mass of water vapor contained in a given mass of air. It is expressed as g/kg.
  1. Humidity Mixing Ratio for Saturated Air: It is defined as the maximum mass of water vapor that can be contained in a given mass of air at a particular temp and pressure. It is expressed as g/kg.
  1. Relative Humidity: It is defined as the ratio, in percentage, of the actual water vapor present in the air to the maximum it can hold at the same temperature and pressure.
  1. RH= HMRx100/HMR for saturated air.
  1. RH=Vapor pressure of Airx100/Saturation vapour pressure of Air.
  1. Wet Bulb Temperature (Tw Tw): It is the lowest temperature which air would attain by evaporating water into it to saturate it. Desert Coolers work on this principle.
  1. Dew Point Temperature (Td Td): It is the lowest temperature to which air should be cooled at constant pressure to saturate it with respect to water. Cooling below dew point causes condensation.
  1. Frost Point: It is the temperature to which air must be cooled to reach saturation with respect to ice. Cooling below the frost point causes formation of hoar frost.

Important Points

  1. As the temperature of the air increases, the amount of water vapour required to saturate it also increases.
  • At subzero temperatures water molecules have more energy and greater degree of freedom than ice, consequently the saturation vapour pressure over water drops is more than that over ice particles.
  • If water drops and ice particles co-exist, water drops will evaporate and condense on the ice particles. This explains rainfall from clouds which extend above 0oC and have both super cooled water drops and ice crystals co-existing.
  • Small water drops can exist in super cooled state up to -40o C.
  • For saturated Air( in Fog, Rain ) Air Temp(TT)=TwTw=TdTd
  • For unsaturated air: Dry Bulb Temp>Wet Bulb Temp>Dew Point

For more info :- https://www.graciousavatar.in/Pilot-Training/

How to TEMPERATURE Effect in Commercial Pilot Training

For a PPL, CPL & ATPL aspirants who wants to become a good pilot, during flying prior to departure or enroute, earth atmosphere plays a vital role for safety of the aircraft. To ensure this, pilot has to be well versant with earth atmosphere & other topics related to aviation meteorology. At Gracious Avatar during commercial pilot training classes for PPL, CPL & ATPL aspirants, meteorology will be covered by the expert ground instructors. Temperature is one of the important topics which would be covered during CPL pilot training.

TEMPERATURE

  1. Temperature is a measure of heat.
  • It is measured by means of thermometer in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit. These scales are arbitrarily fixed with reference to the melting point of ice and the boiling point of pure water at normal pressure. On the Celsius scale these are respectively as 0⁰ C and 100⁰ C and in Fahrenheit scale as 32⁰ F and 212⁰ F. Celsius scale is used internationally, in aviation and science. Use of Fahrenheit scale is confined to English- speaking countries only.
  • Heat is a form of energy. As heat is extracted from a substance, its internal energy is reduced and the random motion of its molecules slows down. The molecules get arranged in a more orderly pattern than before. As more heat is extracted the cooling and orderliness increases. Finally a state is reached when no more heat can be extracted and the molecules reach their maximum orderliness and the molecular motion almost ceases. The lowest temperature is reached. This minimum temperature is the same for all substances, and is accordingly called the absolute zero (K). 1K=-273.16 ⁰ C.

Conversion to C, F & K

  1. F= 9C/5 + 32
  2. C= 5/9 (F-32)
  3. K= C+ 273
  4. Note that -40 ⁰ C = -40 ⁰ F

 

Instruments for Measurement

  1. Dry Bulb Thermometer, Wet Bulb Thermometer (the bulb is covered with a muslin cloth which is kept moist), Maximum Thermometer (like doctors Thermometer), Minimum Thermometer and Thermograph, are used for measuring temperature.
  • Mercury is used in thermometers except in Minimum Thermometer in which alcohol is used instead of mercury.
  • In Thermographs and in Upper Air temperature measurement, bi- metallic strips are used.
  • A minimum thermometer has dumbbell shaped iron index, which permits alcohol to pass through it when the temperature rises. When temperature falls the alcohol, which has a conclave meniscus, drags the index back to indicate minimum temperature.
  • Surface temperature is recorded at a height of 4 ft(1.25m) from the ground in shade(inside a Stevenson’s Screen).

Dry Air & Moist Air

  1. Air which has no water vapour content is called dry air. Such air may exist at very high levels. For all practical purposes unsaturated air is called dry air.
  • With water vapour <4 % (RH <100%) air is called unsaturated or dry.
  • With water vapour >4 %(RH 100%) air is called saturated air.

 

Heat & Temperature

  1. Specific Heat: It is defined as the heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of a substance by 1⁰C. The specific heat of water, regarded as the highest is 1, that of ice 0.5 and of soil 0.2.
  • Latent Heat: It is defined as the amount of heat absorbed or released during change of phase from/to solid/liquid/vapour. It is absorbed during change from solid to liquid and liquid to gas and released during change of phase from vapour to liquid and liquid to solid.
  • When water changes to vapour, a certain quantity of heat is supplied. To change boiling water into vapour, more than five times as much heat is required as is needed to bring the temperature of ice cold water to a boil. Once the boiling begins, the temperature remains constant and the heat released is stored as latent heat. It is released as latent heat when the water vapour condenses to water.

Heat Transfer Processes

  1. Heat is transferred from one place to the other by conduction, convection and radiation.
  • Conduction: In this Process heat is physically transferred by the molecules by contact. Conduction is important process of heat transfer very close to the ground.
  • Convection: In this process heat is bodily transferred to the colder part of the fluid. As more than 70% of the earth is covered with water, hence the importance of convection.  In the atmosphere free Convection is triggered by intense solar heating and the forced Convection by topography.
  • Radiation: Everybody radiates heat at its temperature. In this process of heat transfer the medium is neither affected nor required. The solar radiation directly heats up the earth without affecting the atmosphere.
  • Other Methods: Advection, Latent Heat release, Turbulence, Up and downward motion of air are the other methods of heat transfer.

Diurnal Variation of Surface Temperature

  1. Diurnal variation of temperature is more over land areas than over sea/coastal areas.
  • Sea Surface temperature shows an average variation from day to night of less than 1⁰C, whereas over land the variation may average as much as 20⁰C.
  • Variation is max when wind is calm.
  • Due to nocturnal cooling the surface temperature continues to fall even after sunrise till a balance is reached between the incoming and outgoing radiation. The balance occurs a little after sunrise.
  • Cloud cover can hamper both cooling and heating.
  • Cloudy nights are warmer than clear nights
  • Cloudy days are less warm than clear days.

For more info :- https://www.graciousavatar.in/Pilot-Training/CPL.php

CPL is the Commercial Pilots License.

ATPL is the Airline Transport Pilots License.

Both these license provide the holder with the privilege of flying an airplane for remuneration.

The difference is the experience required to obtain one, for a CPL the minimum stipulated time is between 200-250 hours of flying in a aircraft, this is a standard that is practiced across countries with few exceptions (some Gulf countries issue the license at 125-150 hours), you also need to pass written and flying skill tests to obtain either of the licenses.

For the ATPL, the globally accepted minimum time is 1500 hours.

Associated with the experience people are required to demonstrate equal knowledge in CRM (cockpit resource management), piloting skills, knowledge of piloting an aircraft, also a majority of the airlines promote only pilots with an ATPL to the Captains position. Pilots without ATPL usually continue only as FOs of senior FO’s.

ATPL is required as a basic license for serving as a Pilot-in-Command(PIC) or Captain of an aircraft exceeding 5700 Kg or 12.5k lbs in weight or in general PIC of for a scheduled air carrier who ’ve aircrafts with more than 9 seats. Or else one can continue to be an FO inside an airline but can’t be captain.

For More Info:-https://graciousavatar.in/Pilot-Training/

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